Rules for proper animal nutrition
Animal feed needs to meet the requirements of the animal.
The diet of animals must provide the right amount of the main nutritional elements such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. Until the middle of the last century, feed was low in nutrients, often produced and stored in an unsuitable way. Salt lick was used to supply minerals and vitamins and rations were often insufficient for animal needs, with consequences on well-being and increased sensitivity to diseases. In recent decades, the progress of scientific research on animal nutrition has allowed a continuous improvement in the quality of feed and feed is increasingly attentive to the health of the animal. To ensure well-being, the nutrients necessary for growth and health must be provided in qualitative and quantitative terms and, to achieve this goal, it is necessary that they are selected, controlled, balanced but also free from some anti-nutritional factors present in multiple vegetal raw materials.
For example, in its natural state, soybean has 25 anti-nutritive factors; wheat, on the other hand, contains a protein capable of blocking intestinal production of amylase in animals and humans, the enzyme necessary for the correct digestion of starch.
As for some foods intended for human consumption, heat treatments (cooking, flaking, roasting) are methods that allow you to obtain easily metabolizable, digestible and healthy feed, as they make the food more effective for the organism and give the product microbiological stability.
Generally animals must have a ration containing: Energy (from carbohydrates and fats) to maintain the body and produce (milk, meat, work). The carbohydrates and fats not needed for production are converted to fat and stored in the body. Protein is needed for body building (growth) and maintenance as well as milk production. Without protein there would be no body weight gain nor milk production. Excess protein is converted to urea and fat Minerals help in body building as well as in biological regulation of growth and reproduction. They are also a major source of nutrients in milk. Vitamins help regulate the biological processes in the body and become a source of nutrients in milk. Water helps all over in body building, heat regulation, biological processes as well as a large constituent of milk production as well as eggs.